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Selasa, 13 November 2012

MATERI BAHASA INGGRIS


Gerund and Infinitive

Infinitive

Use

Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.
Use and Word Lists
Example
To know you is to love you.
Why not go to the cinema?
I can swim.
He wants to swim.
They don’t know how to swim.
He made her swim.
They wanted him to swim.
It’s easier to swim downstream.
We made a promise to swim. (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)

Gerund

Form

ing form of the verb

Exceptions in Spelling

See → Present Progressive – Exceptions

Use

Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form.
Use and Word Lists
Example
as the subject of a clause
Cycling is good for your health.
He’s afraid of going by plane.
Before going to bed he turned off the lights.
I enjoy cooking.
I am looking forward to seeing you again.
We had problems finding our way back home.

Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form

Use and Word Lists
Example
I started to read. / I started reading.
She forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.
He stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.
I saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up the stairs.

QUESTION TAGS

Use

frequently used in spoken English when you want s.o. to agree or disagree

Form

positive statement ->question tag negative - You are Tom, aren't you?
negative statement->question tag positive - He isn't Joe, is he?


Examples

with auxiliaries
You've got a car, haven't you?

without auxiliaries (use: don't, doesn't, didn't)
They play football on Sundays, don't they?
She plays football on Sundays, doesn't she?
They played football on Sundays, didn't they?

Questions tags are used to keep a conversation going. You can agree or refuse to a sentence with a question tag.
You go to school, don't you?
You agree.
You refuse.
Yes, I do.
No, I don't.

You aren't from Germany, are you?
You agree.
You refuse.
No, I'm not.
Yes, I am.


Questions tags - Special

Although the negative word not is not in the sentence, the sentence can be negative. Then we use the "positive" question tag.
He never goes out with his dog, does he?
have is a main verb in the sentence -> two possibilities
We have a car, _____?
We have a car, haven't we?
We have a car, don't we?
mostly British English
mostly American English
We use will/would with the imperative (Simple Present).
Open the window, will you?
Open the window, would you?
Don't open your books, will you?
We use won't with a polite request.
Open the window, won't you?
We use shall after Let's.
Let's take the next bus, shall we?
Auxiliary must
We must be at home at 8 pm, mustn't we?
Yes, we must.
No, we needn't.


Procedure adding a question tag

Look at the sentence.
1
Is an auxiliary or a form of to be in the sentence?

yes
no

auxiliary or form of to be affirmative
-> negate auxiliary (add n't)

auxiliary or form of to be negative
-> (delete n't)
affirmative sentence
-> Negate sentence (e.g. don't; doesn't; didn't)

negative sentence
-> (delete n't)
2
Is a personal pronoun the subject of the sentence?

yes
no

Use the personal pronoun.
Form the personal pronoun.
3
Complete the sentence.

 

Example 1: He can play football, ________.
1
Is an auxiliary or a form of to be in the sentence?

yes -> can


auxiliary or form of to be affirmative
-> negate auxiliary (add n't)

can't

2
Is a personal pronoun the subject of the sentence?

yes


Use the personal pronoun.

3
He can play football, can't he?

 

Example 2: Peter can play football, ________.
1
Is an auxiliary or a form of to be in the sentence?

yes -> can


auxiliary or form of to be affirmative
-> negate auxiliary (add n't)

can't

2
Is a personal pronoun the subject of the sentence?


no


Form the personal pronoun.
Peter -> he
3
Peter can play football, can't he?

 

Example 3: Peter plays football, ________.
1
Is an auxiliary or a form of to be in the sentence?


no


affirmative sentence
-> Negate the verb.

verb plays -> Negation: doesn't play

We only use the auxiliary doesn't.
2
Is a personal pronoun the subject of the sentence?


no


Form the personal pronoun.
Peter -> he
3
Peter plays football, doesn't he?

Relative pronoun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. It is called a relative pronoun because it relates the relative (and hence subordinate) clause to the noun that it modifies. In English, the relative pronouns are: who, whom, whose, whoever, whosoever, whomever, which, what, whatever, and that.
A relative pronoun links two clauses into a single complex clause. It is similar in function to a subordinating conjunction. Unlike a conjunction, however, a relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. Compare:
(1) This is a house. Jack built this house.
(2) This is the house that Jack built.
Sentence (2) consists of two clauses, a main clause (This is the house) and a relative clause (that Jack built). The word that is a relative pronoun. Within the relative clause, the relative pronoun stands for the noun phrase it references in the main clause (its antecedent), and is one of the arguments of the verb in the relative clause. In the example, the argument is the house, the direct object of built.
Other arguments can be relativised using relative pronouns:
Subject: Hunter is the boy who kissed Jessica.
Indirect object: Hunter is the boy to whom Jessica gave a gift.
Adpositional complement: Jack built the house in which I now live. (and similarly with prepositions and prepositional phrases in general, for example These are the walls in between which Jack ran.)
Possessor: Jack is the boy whose friend built my house.
In some languages, such as German and Latin, which have noun declensions, the relative pronoun will often agree with its antecedent in gender and number, while the case may indicate its relationship with the verb in the relative clause. In most other languages, the relative pronoun is an invariable word.
The words used as relative pronouns are often words which originally had other functions: for example, the English which is also an interrogative word. This suggests that relative pronouns might be a fairly late development in many languages. Some languages, such as Welsh, do not have relative pronouns.
In English and German, different pronouns are sometimes used if the antecedent is a human being, as opposed to a non-human or an inanimate object (as in who/that).
(5) This is a bank. This bank accepted my identification.
(6) She is a bank teller. She helped us open an account.
With the relative pronouns, sentences (5) and (6) would read like this:
(7) This is the bank that accepted my identification.
(8) She is the bank teller who helped us open an account.
In sentences (7) and (8), the words that and who are the relative pronouns. The word that is used because the bank is a thing; the word who is used because "she" is a person.

Too and enough

Form

too + adjective or adverb
too much/many + noun

adjective or adverb + enough
enough + noun

Functions and examples

1. We use 'too' to mean more than sufficient or more than necessary.
It's too late to stop him.
Jerry was too young to watch the movie.
There are too many people on this train, there's nowhere to sit.
You have too much money, give some to me.

2. We use 'enough' to mean sufficient and in a negative sentence to mean less than sufficient or less than necessary.
You're not working fast enough, you won't finish on time.
Your clothes are big enough to fit me.
Have you got enough money to buy me a drink?
Sorry, I haven't got enough food for everyone.

Important points

1. We can use 'enough' without a noun if the meaning is clear.
There's a lot of food but not enough for everyone.

2. We use 'enough of' or 'too much/many of' before pronouns and determiners.
Not enough of my friends are coming to the party.
You've eaten too many of those cakes.

3. We can replace 'enough' with 'the' before a noun.
I don't have the money to go on holiday.
His company doesn't have the resources to do the job.

4. We can use 'time' or 'room' alone to mean 'enough time' or 'enough room'.
Is there room in your car for one more person?
Do we have time for a coffee?



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